Constructed Wetlands: A Potential Alternative Technology for the Treatment of Wastewaters from Institutions in Rwanda
Charles Mungwakuzwe, MLWS 2017
In Rwanda, it is nearly impossible to collect domestic wastewater with centralized systems, due to the lack of financial investments and the sanitation chains. However, on-site systems such as constructed wetlands may be feasible for wastewater treatment in schools and other similar sized institutions. Constructed wetlands are an alternative technology to conventional wastewater treatment to explore due to their operational simplicity and requirements. This project provides technical information and review of two constructed wetland designs (surface flow and subsurface flow constructed wetlands) and proposes a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland for Indatwa n’Inkesha school. The treated effluent will meet the regulatory targets of Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority for domestic wastewater discharge and could be reused in agriculture. It is expected that the adoption of constructed wetland technologies in Rwanda will depend on the land availability, sanitation chains and safety factors. Further studies are required to understand the viability of this technology, and to provide monitoring data about their long-term performance.